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Effects of a Theoretically Based Large-Scale Reading Intervention in a Multicultural Urban School District

Sadoski, M. & Willson, V. (2006). Effects of theoretically based large-scale reading intervention in a multicultural urban school district. American Educational Research Journal, 43(1), 137-154. doi:10.3102%2F00028312043001137

Background

Pueblo City Schools in Pueblo, Colorado, serve a large percentage of students who are at-risk of reading failure. From the 1998/99 to the 2002/03 school years, Pueblo implemented Lindamood-Bell instruction to address the specific needs of this student population. Students received Seeing Stars, Visualizing and Verbalizing, and Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing instruction to develop symbol imagery, concept imagery, and phonemic awareness. This study investigated the constructs of Dual Coding Theory using the Seeing Stars and Visualizing and Verbalizing programs. Instruction was delivered by Pueblo teachers who were trained in the programs. Student gains were measured with the state reading test. The results were compared to gains made by students from other, similar schools in Colorado who did not receive Lindamood-Bell instruction. Schools were comparable as a result of controlling for school size, free and reduced-price lunch, and minority populations. Third-grade results for Title I schools are provided below.

Urban School District

Results

The line in the chart above shows the percentage point difference (in percent proficient and advanced on the state reading test) between Pueblo (Lindamood-Bell) schools and comparison schools. By 2003, schools partnering with Lindamood-Bell were 26 percentage points above the average of the comparison schools. The independent evaluators who conducted this research determined that the main effect of Lindamood-Bell instruction was statistically significant (p < .0001). In their published article they state that “[Pueblo] Title I schools outperformed the average of the remaining comparable Title I schools in the state in an increasingly positive way during the years 1998-2003.” The results of this study support the Dual Coding Theory model of cognition and illustrate that Lindamood-Bell instruction in the Seeing Stars, Visualizing and Verbalizing, and Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing programs leads to improved reading, which is essential to achieving success with school curricula.

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We’re looking for energetic, positive individuals to work as tutors (who we call Clinicians) in a Lindamood-Bell Learning Center. Join us as we teach students to read and comprehend to their potential! For more information and to apply, follow the link in our bio, @lindamoodbellofficial.
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📣Attention educators! 
Join us Wednesday, April 17th, for a Leaders in Literacy Webinar featuring Dr. Robert Pasternack. As a teacher, New Mexico State Special Education Director, and, ultimately, as Assistant Secretary for the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) at the U.S. Department of Education, Dr. Parternack has spent his career focused on improving student outcomes. Register now at the link in our bio, @lindamoodbellofficial.
Lindamood-Bell summer learning can change your child’s life! Our evidence-based instruction improves Reading, Comprehension, and Math in just a few weeks. 
⏳Enroll now for special savings on your first week of summer learning. Hurry, spots are filling fast! Follow the link in our bio, @lindamoodbellofficial.
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#lindamoodbell #testimonial #tutor
Now hiring for summer! 
We’re seeking energetic, positive individuals to work as clinicians (tutors) in a Lindamood-Bell Learning Center. Join us as we teach students to read and comprehend to their potential! For more information and to apply, follow the link in our bio, @lindamoodbellofficial.
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Our learning center creates a personalized learning plan tailored to each child’s specific needs. Students often make years of improvement after just a few weeks. Now enrolling for summer! Follow the link in our bio, @lindamoodbellofficial.
Dr. Harold Koplewicz, founder of the @childmindinstitute, joined @nprfreshair to discuss why kids and teens are experiencing unprecedented levels of anxiety and depression— and what parents can do about it. 
On the topic of dyslexia and other learning difficulties, Dr. Koplewicz describes the value of evidence-based reading instruction and his family’s personal experience with Lindamood-Bell. 
Listen to the full episode – Link in @nprfreshair’s bio.
Your student can thrive with Lindamood-Bell Academy! We develop foundational skills and provide a personalized learning experience—in-person or live online.
📆Join us on Wednesday, April 18, for our Lindamood-Bell Academy Virtual Open House. Get details and register now—follow the link in our bio, @lindamoodbellofficial.
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