Summer School Instruction Leads to Significant Gains in Reading for Fort Smith Public School Students
Arkansas, Reading, Response to Intervention, RtI, Seeing Stars, Tier 3
Fort Smith Public Schools in Fort Smith, Arkansas, serves a large percentage of students who are at-risk of reading failure. During the summer of 2018, Fort Smith Public Schools implemented Lindamood-Bell® instruction to address the specific needs of this student population. Nineteen students received an average of 60.5 hours of Seeing Stars instruction to develop symbol imagery for reading. Instruction was delivered by Fort Smith teachers who received professional development in the programs developed by Lindamood-Bell’s founders. Student gains were measured with a battery of reading assessments.
On average, Seeing Stars students achieved significant improvements in reading. They made large standard score changes on all measures. Additionally, the 30-point percentile increase in word attack put these students within the normal range (25th-75th percentile). Their pre- to posttest results were statistically significant on nearly all measures. The results of this study illustrate that Lindamood-Bell instruction in the Seeing Stars program leads to improved reading, which is essential to achieving success with school curricula.
Number of Students: 19 Average Age: 11.7
Average Hours of Instruction: 60.5
Lindamood-Bell Programs Implemented: Seeing Stars®
• Symbol Imagery Test
• Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-3rd (word attack)
• Wide Range Achievement Test-4th (reading and spelling)
• Gray Oral Reading Tests-4th (rate, accuracy, and fluency)