Fort Smith Public Schools – Secondary Schools – General Education – Decoding
Arkansas, Reading, Response to Intervention, RtI, Secondary, Seeing Stars, Tier 3
Fort Smith Public Schools in Fort Smith, Arkansas serves a large percentage of students who are at-risk of reading failure. During the 2020-21 school year, Fort Smith junior high schools implemented Lindamood-Bell® instruction to address the specific needs of this student population. Eighty students received an average of 67.1 hours of Seeing Stars instruction to develop symbol imagery for reading. Instruction was delivered by Fort Smith teachers who received professional development in the programs developed by Lindamood-Bell’s founders. Student gains were measured with a battery of reading assessments.
On average, Seeing Stars students achieved significant improvements in reading. They made large standard score changes on most measures. Additionally, the 23-point percentile increase in word recognition put these students within the normal range (25th-75th percentile). Their pre- to posttest results were statistically significant on all measures. The results of this study illustrate that Lindamood-Bell instruction in the Seeing Stars program leads to improved reading, which is essential to achieving success with school curricula.
PROFILE: Secondary Schools – General Education
Number of Students: 80 Average Age: 13.9
Average Hours of Instruction: 67.1
Lindamood-Bell Programs Implemented: Seeing Stars®
• Symbol Imagery Test
• Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Test-3rd
• Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-3rd (word attack)
• Wide Range Achievement Test-4th (reading and spelling)
• Gray Oral Reading Tests-4th (rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension)
• Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-5th (vocabulary)